The 14th century society can be parallelized to current ages as a society in transition towards modernity. The theology of Nicholas Cabasilas belongs to this era. This presentation studies Cabasilas’ Discourse Concerning Illegal Acts of Officials Daringly Committed Against Things Sacred (Λόγος περὶ τῶν παρανόμως τοῖς ἄρχουσιν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἱεροῖς τολμωμένων) and brings his theology in our epoch. This study argues that this text refers to the question of the relationship between the Church and the state, a relationship that is connected with the mystery of the Eucharist. The author of the presentation concludes that the way the Church is related to the state is indicative of the self-consciousness of the Church as well as the character of Church’s pastoral work and its relationship with the world.