Among other virtues, humility plays a central role for Ambrose of Milan. However, the bishop does not distinguish between two meanings of humilitas that describe both humility as virtue, and humiliation as a condition man burdened by hardships. Especially in the situation of religious struggle of the Church in Milan in 380s, this humilitas becomes a vehicle of of believer’s union with Christ, the Humble one both in moral and in mystical sense. Humiliation of the Church and of the believers becomes paradoxically a manifestation of the “true humble” who is Christ. Ambrose proposes the idea that it is during the persecutions and adversities when the Church and the Christians can experience a moment of spiritual growth towards perfection and union with God. The paper presents this theological concept of humilitas, focusing especially on Ambrose’s Commentary on Psalm 118.